Psychology is a field of discipline that strives to understand the mental activities of individuals/groups. The goal of this field in the modern ear is geared towards improved mental health and wholeness. Like most scientific endeavors, psychology is broadly vast with a different categorization of ranging expertise.
The significance of psychology is golden, bringing us to the clear concept of what psychology is in the modern era.
What is Psychology
Psychology is the study of the human mind and its operational functions. Being scientific in its approach, it tries to probe into the relationship between mental activities and behaviors in any defined context. Also, psychology has a lot to do with the features or attributes possessed by a particular individual or group. Besides that, you can consider psychology as the convergence of both mental and emotional states, and how it controls behaviors.
Notwithstanding, these definitions are relatively limited, as the modern science of psychology has been improved and expounded. The modern science of psychology is broken down into different facets; into seven schools of thought (each composed and categorized with its principle governing theories) which give us an overview into their philosophical comparison for the help of specialization and easy comprehension. These modern schools of thought include:
1. Biological Psychology (Biopsychology)
This facet of psychology deals with the approach that probes into the physiological study of specific mechanisms. This further deals with the degree of influence about neuro-transmitters, and cognitive-behavioral abilities of individuals or groups (how we think, act and feel).
2. Behavioral Psychology
Behavioral psychology relies heavily on cultivated behaviors. This aspect of psychology gained much significance in the early part of the twentieth century, and it provides the philosophical framework for how new behaviors are learned, adopted, and reinforced.
Practitioners of mental health make use of behavioral psychology to help their patients in many ways. These include varieties of mental illnesses such as but not limited to Anxiety disorders, Insomnia, Mood disorders, etc.
3. Cognitive Psychology
This aspect or school of thought in psychology is based on the thought processes of individuals or groups, and how these thought processes largely determine behaviors.
Among many varieties of studies under cognitive psychology includes thought patterns, memory, decision making, and mental complexes. In a nutshell, cognitive psychology generally deals with the entire or collective mentality of an individual or group.
4. Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic psychology and its philosophy dating back to as far as the 1950’s probes into the influence of motivation, and its mental stronghold on thought patterns and complementary behaviors. Practitioners of this school of thought in psychology are involved in the investigations of norms and values, meaning, human potentials, spirituality, etc, all in the means to understand with a holistic approach, the basis of human existence.
5. Cross-Cultural Psychology
Just as the name implies, this aspect of psychology is cross-cultural in its approach. It studies how humans behave depending on the variety of cultures. It gives us the philosophical approach on how behaviors can be affected and shaped by either environmental, inherent, or genetic factors. A great example is cases where various cultures impact certain behaviors and the perception of life in general.
6. Evolutionary Psychology
This school of thought in psychology is associated with the proponent of evolution (alongside its theories) and how it provides a detailed explanation of some specific processes in physiological activities. This aspect of psychology deals with studies in sensation perception, consciousness, motivations and emotions, cognition, language, and many more.
7. Psychodynamic Psychology
The ideology behind psychodynamic psychology is contingent on the usefulness of the unconscious mind, interpersonal relationships, and early childhood memories to treat mental illnesses. Sigmund Freud as a renowned psychologist is the founder and an established author in this school of thought regarding psychology in general. In modern psychology, this field continuously evolves and grows into multidisciplinary sections.
The understanding and methodology of psychology may have changed over the course of time, but it is always based on certain aspects of the human experience and behavior.
Psychology will continue to evolve, and so shall we.